Physalis is a plant belonging to the familySolanaceae, most often perennial. Thus, physalis is a relative of eggplant, potato, tomato, peppers and tobacco, although it differs greatly from them in its structure. Many people know the fruit of the physalis - a ball of bright color, from yellow to orange-red, enclosed in a box-a bubble slightly rounded. The capsule has the same saturated color andlooks as if glued from the finest tissue paper. It is in these solar boxes-lanterns that the decorative value of the plant consists, and it is from this point of view that the physiological, growing and caring for it are of interest to many gardeners.
Fisalis fruit is a ball of bright color, from yellow to orange-red, enclosed in a box-bubble slightly rounded in shape
Much rarer are those who know about othersspecies of this culture, and even more so that he grows physically edible. In general, there are about a hundred physalis species. Fruits of some species are suitable for consumption, most of the varieties are grown on household plots and flower beds exclusively for decorative purposes. Despite the fact that as an edible crop this plant appeared in Russia almost simultaneously with a tomato, the physical one - namely, that which is grown for the purpose of subsequent use as a food product - is still considered to be some exotic things.
However, breeders continue to work with thisplant, bringing out new varieties of physalis, the fruits of which are especially large - sometimes with an average apple! - size, as well as a pleasant taste and smell. In general, edible physalis - or physalis vegetable, as it is often called - comes from South America and Mexico, that is, it is originally a heat-loving plant. In addition to vegetable physalis, berry physalis is also distinguished among edible species of this plant. It is distinguished by smaller fruits, but especially pleasant taste and delicate aroma.
From dampness and bright sunlight physalis can become pale and even completely discolored
As for the decorative physalis, the mostcommon in Russia is the common anisal - namely, its variety bearing the name of the French botanist Franche. The homeland of the normal physalis is Central America and the southern regions of North America. It is physically decorative so love florists in dry bouquets. Grapes of its fire lanterns perfectly fit in floral compositions and are used for the design of rooms, animating the gray winter weekdays.
Physalis edible: features and care
Vegetable fizalis is also called Mexicantomato. In the homeland of the physalis, the spherical fruits of this plant, actually resembling mini tomatoes in appearance, are eaten fresh, baked and cooked, and also widely used for making sauces, compotes and jams. Confectioners appreciate physalis due to its gelling properties. Mexican physlises vary greatly in their attributes and qualities: they mature at different times, grow in different ways, their fruits have different color, shape and taste. On the basis of these tropical physiological types of varieties, which can be bred in Russia, are also derived.
Cultivation of physalis begins with sowing of seeds in early March
Most garden plants are easy to growthrough seedlings. Physiology is not an exception. Cultivation of its seedlings begins with the sowing of seeds in the first days of March. After appearing on the seedlings 3-5 leaves are dived into separate pots, after which they are fed. Prepare the plants for sunlight gradually so that they do not get burned. In open ground, plants are planted in May, when their age reaches at least 40 days.
To the physically eatable are applicable all the sameprinciples of care that are used for tomatoes. So that on the bush ripened as much fruit as possible, it is common practice to pinch the top of the plants at the end of June, but at the same time it is not necessary to patch the physalis. With an abundance of fruit on the branches, the latter can be tied. Fruit collection must be done before frost. Not having time to mature until this moment, the fruits perfectly ripen in a warm room, but the taste will be somewhat inferior to what has matured in natural conditions.
Collection of fizalis fruits must be carried out before frost
Fisals of vegetable are covered with sticky bittersubstance, so immediately before eating, you need blanching the fruit with hot water. Fruits collected for long-term storage, subject to such treatment is not necessary. Vegetable fizalis is more cold than its counterparts, and is able to tolerate small frosts - it can be planted in the ground even earlier than tomatoes. In addition, it is more resistant to diseases to which all Solanaceae are exposed, including to blight.
Grow this species can not only seedlings, butand directly planting the seeds of physalis in the ground. Such plants mature somewhat later, but the yield in this case will be higher, as well as the general resistance of physalis to diseases. This is understandable - after all, such plants are not subjected to stress in the form of picks and subsequent planting in the ground.
To the quality of the soil, physalis presents a singlerequirement - it should not be acidic. And as for the precursor plants, the Physalis can be safely planted after any cultures, except for the native Solanaceae, which include tomatoes, eggplant and pepper, and potatoes. In this case, it is better to take a break of two or three seasons.
The site where the physalis is planned to be planted,must be well lit, fertilized (preferably mineral fertilizers) and cleared of weeds. For seeding to be successful, you need to select quality seeds. Grow seeds can and at 12? C, but it will happen more quickly at a more favorable temperature - about 20? C. In this case, the shoots will appear in a week. If the seed is pre-soaked in advance and wait for the appearance of sprouts, then such seeds will germinate on the third day - provided they are planted in sufficiently warmed soil. During the vegetation period, care for the physalis is reduced to regular loosening of the soil, weeding weeds, watering and feeding.
Among the berry varieties of physalis, the most famous is the strawberry
Earlier, all fruits ripen, located onthe plant below. By the time of maturation, the boxes brighten and dry up. Ripe fruits often fall. In dry weather, they will lie on the ground without problems, in the damp they will not be left there for long. If the fruits of the physalis are wet, they need to be freed from the capsules and dried, so that they do not deteriorate during storage.
Among the berry varieties of physalis is most knownfizalis strawberry, or raisin, as well as the Florida and the Peruvian physiological. The yield of these varieties is somewhat lower than that of vegetable fizalis, the fruits on small stems are finer, but much smoother and tastier. The most whimsical of these is the Peruvian Physalis. Growing it in the middle belt is carried out only in protected ground, under the film, since this species is very thermophilic. You can use fruits of berry varieties of physalis directly from the bush, and you can cook compotes, jams, jams from them. They are suitable for making marmalade and pastille, as well as candied fruits. Dried fruits of berry fizalis resemble grapes in some varieties, in others - dried apricots.
Decorative physalis is a perennial plant that perfectly hibernates in the middle band
Physalis ordinary (decorative)
A fairly unpretentious plant isdecorative physalis. Care for him will not be difficult even for a beginner gardener. Decorative physalis is a perennial plant that perfectly hibernates in the middle band. The fruits of this species are unsuitable for food, it blooms in early summer with small, unimpressive flowers. But the attraction to the decorative physalis is attached not by them, but by bright dry boxes that mature in the autumn and are capable of "blazing" in the garden like a fire for a long time.
In addition, there is a decorative physalysis and anotherfeature - to grow and capture large areas of soil due to its creeping root system. So it is desirable to limit the growth zones of the physalis in the flower gardens. Every few years the rhizomes of the physalis must be separated, thereby rejuvenating the plant in order to avoid its degeneration.
The original fizalis fruits inspire not only gardeners, but also needlewomen
Seeds of decorative physalis can be planted both on seedlings and immediately into the ground. In addition, it is possible to propagate physalis vegetatively: by cuttings and by dividing the bush.
Cut the stems of physalis for the formation of bouquetsshould be in early September, in dry weather. After touching and removing excess leaves, the stems of the physlis can be tied and hung to dry in a dark, dry place. After several weeks of drying, you can simply build a bouquet with many bright lanterns from the stems of physalis, and you can show creativity and combine them with the branches of mountain ash, spruce branches, cones, autumn leaves and ears. Ideas of how to combine in bouquets physalis, photos of flower compositions - all this can be found in abundance in the web.
Rinse throat with physalis helps with stomatitis and tonsillitis
By the way, the original fruits of Physalisinspire not only gardeners, but also needlewomen. For those who love to embroider with threads, embroidery kits from the company "Golden Handles" are certainly familiar, physalis does not take the last place among the most popular schemes.
Therapeutic qualities of physalis
Much has already been said about the physalis, its fruits anddecorative properties, but there is another area of application of this culture. Little is known that, in addition to all other dostochnostv possesses fizalis and medicinal properties. Fruits of edible varieties of physalis contain trace elements, pectin, tannins, a variety of organic acids, vitamins A and C.
Physalis is used in dietary nutrition
In folk medicine, physalis is used as acholeretic and diuretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic. Physalis is also used in dietary nutrition. Inside use as fresh fruits of physalis, and juice from them, as well as decoctions and infusions. Compresses with decoction of fizalis fruits are used for skin diseases and rheumatism, and rinses for stomatitis and angina.
However, it is important to remember that in the cases of fruits and inThe ground part of the plant contains toxic alkaloids. In addition, with caution should be used fruit physalis in food for people with high acidity of the stomach.