Almost on each backyard there isgarden with fruit trees. The most favorite of them since the childhood are apple trees with succulent bulk fruits. To the yield of such trees did not fall, and the crown looked beautiful and well-groomed, you need to know the scheme of pruning apple trees in the fall. By removing excess branches, you open the path to the sun's rays to the bottom of the fruit tree, which has a positive effect not only on yield, but also on the health of plants.
Methods of crown formation
The main task of pruning young fruitfultrees, in particular apple trees, - to balance the number of old and young branches, which in the end should remain approximately the same. Removal should be done carefully, always following the shape of the crown. A properly formed tree will bear more.
The main task of pruning young fruit trees is to balance the number of old and young branches
Experienced gardeners number several waysgiving shape to trees. Before the pruning of young apples in the fall will be your usual business, you should decide on the preferred shape of the crown. It can be of several types:
General principles of pruning apple trees
This is not a complete list of available forms. Beginners to learn the basics of gardening is easiest to start with the formation of sparse-tiered crowns.
The method of pruning young apple trees is quite simple. The basic rule, which should be adhered to the formation of a correct and beautiful crown, says that on the main branches it is necessary to leave 4 to 6 children. The distance between them should be at least 30-40 cm. It is most convenient to use this method in trees where the lower skeletal branch is not more than 110 cm above the ground.
Beginning of care for young apple trees should be in early spring
Start taking care of young apple treesbeginning of vegetation, that is, early spring. During this period, it is important to remove all unnecessary parts so that the shape of the tree does not change over the summer period. Removing diseased branches allows to keep young apple trees healthy, accelerate their development and improve yield.
You can trim the branches in summer, but more often it is done to shorten shoots. As you can see, pruning apple trees is a fairly simple procedure.
Pruning of annual apple trees
Transplanting the tree to a permanent place,experts recommend cutting off all of its upper part. Cut everything that is above a meter above ground level. This action will ensure the appearance of lateral shoots, which in the future will help to form the crown.
If the seedling has already started the side shoots, then only those that are located below the level of 70 cm above the ground should be removed. Cutting branches above this level occurs according to another scheme:
- The shoots forming an acute angle with the trunk are cut completely.
- If the branch grows at a wide angle, and this is approximately 90 degrees, then it should be cut to 3 or 5 buds.
Transplanting the tree to a permanent place, experts recommend cutting off all of its upper part
Escape with a wide angle in the future will turn into the base of the crown, so do not cut it.
Pruning two-year-old apple trees in autumn
A fruit tree of this type does not quicklygrows, therefore for the second year of its life it will consist of a thin trunk and several lateral shoots. To properly form the crown, you should leave the apple tree no more than 5 young twigs with wide corners, which in the future will be the main ones. All unnecessary should be removed.
To properly form the crown, you should leave the apple tree no more than 5 young twigs with wide corners
Form the central conductor withthe very beginning of the growth of the tree. In height, it should be longer by 4-5 kidneys than skeletal branches. The shoots that you decided to leave, also need to be cut, while the lower ones should be longer than the upper ones, but not more than 30 cm. This method of pruning an apple tree allows you to form a rounded crown with a strong skeleton.
The next 3-5 years the tree is better not to touch. It is not even worthwhile to remove shoots during this period, as this can affect the yield. Exceptions are sick or broken branches, which need to be cut to the ground.
Scheme of proper apple tree planting
If the young apple-tree actively grows, then it is possiblecut a little wire, but do not forget that it should rise above all the other branches. To create the right crown, you can use several more techniques, such as direction and change of the slope of the branches.
This method of orienting shoots is usedMany experienced gardeners, because it allows you to correct incorrectly growing branches without an acute tool. For example, to increase the angle of inclination, it is enough to put the spacer. Another effective way to change the direction of branches is to tie them to a peg hammered into the ground.
If a young apple tree grows actively, then you can cut a little conductor
You can think of other ways to solveproblems, but these are the most popular. After reading the article, you can safely go to the front garden with a garden tool and begin the process. After processing the trees, the next year they will bear fruit.