Medunica officinalis: useful properties and description

Medunitsa - very unpretentious, but pretty neat and attractive plant. Many types of medinits clearly demonstrate their beauty from the earliest spring to the deep autumn.

Description of the plant

The plant Medunitsa (its description is included in the botanical classification) is of Western European origin. It is an evergreen rhizome perennial. Belongs to the category of borage. The distribution area of ​​the Medunica is coniferous and broad-leaved, summer-green forests of the continent of Eurasia. In the natural environment, it lives in separate groups in the forest, among small shrubs and trees.

The plant Meduzhnica officinalis is aelegant bush with a smoothly standing, 30 centimeters stalk, covered with downy glandular soft hairs. The foliage at the root is long-petioled, covered with a thick, soft, velvety cover. The leaves are close in shape to the ellipse, but the varietal difference is reflected in their configuration. Some are smaller, others larger. Leaves near the stem are small and sharp. The variety of species varies from 12 to 70, but they are almost completely not preserved in pure expression, which is hampered by high dusting. This explains the lack of a clear structuring of species.

Vegetation, color

The flowering period of the lungwort falls on the early,A stormy spring and lasts about a whole month. The flowers of the lungwort express themselves as double formations of small curls tightly assembled at the tip of the stem. Corolla of this flower, usually funnel-shaped. There are two types of flowers. Some are characterized by hidden in their depths small, short stamens and, at the same time, prominent from the corolla long pistil pillars. In others, the reverse structure is short pistils with long stamens. These peculiarities often help to avoid autogamy, make cross-pollinating order effective.

A characteristic feature that distinguishes the flower of a lungwort,is expressed in the fact that one plant can simultaneously have both blue and pink inflorescences. Thanks to this, a legend was born about the unity of the opposites of the male and female beginnings. Nevertheless, pink with blue flowers simultaneously in one inflorescence can easily be explained by a scientific worldview.

In the cellular formations of the lungwort containpigments of special plant origin, the so-called anthocyanins. They color the petal surfaces with the appropriate color and change it under the influence of the acid present in the cell fluid. Young flowers have higher acidity, its effect on anthocyanins causes pink, and in some species even red pigmentation.

The process of flower withering leads to a decreaseacid levels in the juice, anthocyanins react weakly, the blue color gradually prevails. This can be confirmed and demonstrated experimentally: the petals, blue, will turn pink if they are drunk with acetic acid. The period of flowering of the lungwort (photo) is completed by the formation of a large number of elegant flowers and leaves.

They are added to the picture of an ineffable beauty from a variety of color glints and spots.

Decorative features

The pronounced ornamentality of this plantcauses increased interest and attention of gardeners to it. Europeans (especially the British) and the Americans organized a large number of admirers' clubs. The seeming impossibility of creating a newfangled, unusual, is refuted by the selection of fresh, new varieties, increasing their diversity from year to year. Brings to the amazement the refinement of the rims at the edges of the plate of the leaf, silvery spots and shades, the size and palette of flowers.

Medunica medicinal beautifula plant that has a pleasant sweet taste. Therefore, a lot of insect pollinators fly to its smell. Moving from one flower to another, they carry the pollen. Especially loved is the nectar-rich medlina, bees and bumblebees. The ants take away the fleshy appendages of the ripened seeds, so they contribute to the spread of the plant over considerable distances.

Soil, fertilizer, watering

The plant does not tolerate heat, it requiresmandatory watering in arid weather. For growth, the most suitable loamy, and also sandy loamy soil, saturated with humus. Top dressing is applied once during the summer, mainly in the middle of the season, when the new foliage is actively growing. A complex mineral fertilizer is also used. The composition of 10 liters of water should contain not less than 20 g of substance. This volume is added to each square meter of the plantation. If there is a need, then the sprouting shoots become shorter.

Care, preparation for winter

The most comfortable flower feels itself incool, shady place. Care of the plant requires regular removal of old, dead and pest-affected leaves. The area of ​​plant growth should be cleared of debris, weeds, various debris. The soil must be drained, water stagnation should not be allowed. Preparation of cultures and hybrids of the lungwort for the winter period can be limited to sheltering plants, fallen leaves and mulching them with peat.

Reproduction, transplantation

Reproduction consists in cluster division, andalso planting seeds. Seedlings are dive with an interval of not less than 5-8 cm. It is more expedient to crush and replace the lungwort in the period from July to August. This is done after the plant fades, old foliage withers, new rosettes develop. The roots are shortened, the plant is planted in mulch mulch. To avoid excessive and rapid loss of moisture, the planted material is covered for some time with a protective film.

Using

Decorative qualities of herbsfor decoration of stony areas, the device of curbs, group and mixborder compositions. Various types of plants are used in landscape design, the arrangement of regular gardens and parks, decorate the adjacent territory. In Western Europe, in particular Great Britain, the lungwort is used not only as decorative, but also as a vegetable crop. In order to give life to young shoots in early spring, the scrofula accumulates starch in the root formations, preparing for wintering. This quality is reflected in the sweet taste of the leaves of the lungwort. Salads, various soups, and mashed potatoes are prepared from it. An example is a popular salad with hot sauce: combine the ground mass with finely chopped onion and boiled potatoes, season with salt and pepper. Add the hot tomato sauce, stir. As a winter stock, the litter is salted, stored in a cool place or a refrigerator.

Ailments and pests

In the humid, cold period, the wizard may beis affected by powdery mildew. Among the pests affecting the plant, the greatest threat is represented by snails and slugs. Their life cycle is carried out in moist, shaded conditions, similar to the conditions of plant growth. They infect the lungwort, forming gaps in the foliage, scraping the surface layers from the stem, attacking the trunk, destroying the seedlings.

Characteristics and attributes of species

The plant of the medlina, whose varieties are very numerous, has bright, characteristic species.

Sausage litter lives in France and Italy,spreading in the woods large, evergreen carpets. This species is the ancestor of many selection varieties. Its difference is matte-green leaves of large, oval shape with spots of silvery color, creating the illusion of hoarfrost.

Meduchnitsa is unclear - the most commonrepresentative of the middle-aged Russia. This plant is very beautiful in the flowering phase, but the breeders do not enjoy it. Flowers are predominantly lilac, but there are also white specimens.

Medunica officinalis is very similar to a lungwortunclear, but there is a difference in the leaves - they are in bright spots. The territory of the settlement of medicinal medlina, begins in Western Europe and ends in Siberia. In the nurseries there are elegant varieties of this plant with pale blue, pale pink and white flowers.

Seldom seen in the wild form - medinaFilyarsky. It is a long-stemmed representative of the forests of the Carpathians. He actively takes root in the gardens, expanding, covering the soil with a dense carpet of brilliant light green leaves. The first of May is marked by the appearance of bright red inflorescences, which blossom generously until the first June days.

A beautiful, but a rare sight - medinitsa rosaceous. Distributed in the bush coastal thicket of mountain (up to 1500 m above sea level) rivers of the Apennine peninsula. Its features include lanceolate-like leaves, which reach 20 cm in length. In the process of growth of foliage, white-silvery blots merge into a solid white-silver mass. With the onset of the first spring heat, a purple-red bloom appears.

Meduinitsa is red - also a mountainous view. The habitat is beech, as well as pine forests of the Bulgarian, Albanian and Hungarian mountain regions. Distinguished by a long lasting, abundant bright red bloom. Light green, bristly leaves create a continuous covering of the ground, up to 30 cm high. This is the earliest light of all varieties.

The most attractive flower of the forest flora by rightis considered a lungwort the softest. Slowly expanding, it forms dense shrubs up to 55cm tall. The flower is widely dispersed in European, Caucasian, Dzhungar, Altai forest ranges. A strict, dense bush with silver-green foliage, in the period of April-May is decorated with multiple inflorescences of bluish-lilac shades.

Beneficial features

Medunitsa the plant is rich in microelements,especially for manganese. It is generally believed that herbal infusions infusions regulate the endocrine system, enhance blood formation, have anti-inflammatory, hemostatic effect. Since ancient times the foliage of medinits was used in the treatment of lung diseases. Folk methods of herbal medicine by a lungwort extend to pulmonological diseases, pulmonary and gastrointestinal hemorrhages, renal inflammations, purulent wounds, abscesses, ulcers.

Duration of treatment medinais different and dependent on the course of the disease, its severity. Recipes are fairly simple-0.5 liters of boiling water with two tablespoons of crushed dry mass are infused for 2 hours. Oral three-time intake of half a glass of infusion for half an hour before meals. For outdoor use tincture is also prepared, but the amount of grass is increased to 4 spoonfuls. Among the procedures are compresses, various hygienic actions. To heal open and purulent wounds, chopped leaves and fresh juice of medicinal litter are used.

Despite the larvae of useful properties, inmodern traditional and scientific medicine, they are not used. Cases of side effects from the medical use of lungwort have not been registered, but the use of lungwort during pregnancy, with thrombosis and increased coagulability of blood, kidney diseases is contraindicated. The only disadvantage of a lungwort can be the inability to use it due to individual intolerance and the characteristics of the person himself.