If you have not heard of such a plant asspindle, this is a huge omission on your part. This is a shrub (and some species can even proudly be called trees) with small, but very nice flowers. Thanks to a number of useful properties, in many areas of many gardeners are interested in the issues of planting and care of spindle leaves. If you want to know more about what this wonderful plant is and how to take care of it, feel free to read this article. So, let's begin.
Description of the plant
From the biological point of view, spindle -evergreen tree or shrub. However, there are species with foliage falling season. Its shoots are roundish with four fuzzy faces. His leaves are always smooth, opposite. Sometimes, there are growths on the cork. How they look can be understood. Having looked a photo of a spindle brush.
Flowers are small, sparse, not brightcoloring. Most often they have a color of several tones brighter than the leaves. But there are brown or bright red. It all depends on the species. Flowers are located on the branches of the inflorescence, as a rule, form a brush. Sometimes there are also corymbose inflorescences. They blossom quickly, right after the leaves.
In spindle-bearing there are also fruits. They are a dry, rough box divided into four small parts. Usually happens, in the beginning it appears light with a green tint, but after the formation inside the fruit, it becomes brighter and more noticeable. In different types of spindles during maturation, it can be of different colors: pink, yellow, red, purple and so on.
Inside this box are seeds of spindle grass. They come in many colors: from orange to dark brown. There are also red ones. In fact, this color is not the seed itself, but the seedling. This is a special fleshy tissue covering the seed. It is needed by the plant in order not to damage the seeds.
Now there is another question: where the spindle leaves grow. It occurs almost everywhere, where humidity and temperature are acceptable. Basically, it lives in the temperate and subtropical zones. Less often it can be seen in the tropics. Prefers to grow in the shade of plants. It is easy to find it in forests with broad-leaved trees.
Types of spindle leaves
In general, this genus consists of more than 200different species. Approximately half of them are evergreen. Despite such a rich assortment, in Russia there are only 17-22 species. The most common are the spindle warty and European spindle grass. So, let's talk in more detail about the main of them.
The spindle is winged. The height of this species is about 2.5 meters, if it grows like a bush. There is the same species and as a tree with a height of up to 4 meters. Its bark is light gray, and the branches diverge in four directions. The leaves are green, rough to the touch, but externally strongly shine. A distinctive feature of this species is the red boxes. Thanks to them and winged twigs, it was applied in decorative art. Occurs only in the Eastern part of Eurasia: on Sakhalin, in Japan and China. Reminds of the sakura known to many.
The spindle is Japanese. This plant is an evergreen shrub, up to 7 meters high. However, 7 meters is the maximum height. The Japanese spindle is interesting in that it does not add much to growth if the conditions do not correspond to it. In this case, it will grow slightly in the spring. If his conditions of living are close to ideal, he will increase his growth in stages, being either at rest or in a state of special activity.
The flowers of this plant are collected in inflorescences of the type"umbrella". One "umbrella" contains from fifteen to thirty flowers of yellow or green color. The leaves are rather large, but they have a special shape: uneven ends are pointed at the edges. The branches grow upward, forming a large angle with the trunk. Most often this species is found in Korea, Japan and China.
Fortechan's spindle. The motherland of this species is China, but now it is grown throughout Ukraine and Russia, up to St. Petersburg. Representatives of this species can be found in the Caucasus. This plant is very different from other species. Fortychule sprig is an evergreen shrub shrub that lives even in the central part of Russia.
It looks funny, covered with snow: even in winter its bright color is not lost. He has roundish leaves, a length of two to four centimeters. The capsule is practically invisible, since they are very small and have a light green color. However, the color of the leaves can be identified many subspecies of this funny plant. The leaves are yellow and white, they can have different impregnations or specks.
The spindle is warty. It has the second name - small spindle nose. This species can be both a tree and a shrub. Depending on this, its height varies from two to six meters. Its branches are surrounded by numerous shoots. Both branches and shoots have a bright green color and differ in that they are covered with warts. This is the distinguishing feature of the species. Its seeds are red-orange in color, and the boxes are light pink. It looks very beautiful in autumn, because it is at this time that its leaves begin to acquire a pinkish color, shading bright green shoots.
In ornamental horticulture is even more commonother species. Often used as hedges. Has excellent for this indicator: unpretentiousness to light and temperature. However, it is possible to add too slow growth to its minuses.
Occurs in all parts of Europe, except for its Northernpart, as well as throughout the European part of Russia. It occurs not only in natural areas, but also in reserves. It prefers to grow on fertile soils: in forests, and conifers, and broad-leaved.
Berezkin the European. This species is unfavorable to climatic conditions and grows in many parts of Europe and Asia. Prefers to grow in the forest zone under the cover of broad-leaved plants. Interestingly, he is included in the list of plants used for landscaping and landscape decoration. Special attention is paid to it by Americans, calling it a strawberry tree.
This is because it easily toleratesdrought, and severe frosts. However, he is very fond of light. It grows easily even in city not very environmentally friendly conditions. Thanks to such endurance, it is very common. There are more than 20 forms.
The height of the tree is about six meters,although there are small bushes. This species has rather long leaves: their length reaches ten centimeters. The shape of the leaves is rounded at the edges. Color, by the way, leaves change. At the beginning of their flowering they appear dark green, and then start to blush. Their beauty does not last long: up to 20 days. The seedling of this species is orange, and the box itself is red.
Of course, you can say a lot, but it's better to see the photos of all types of spindle bearing yourself in order to understand the main differences.
Planting of spindle leaves
Now you know what are the types of spindle. If you decide to decorate your house with a new inhabitant - a domestic view of this plant, then you need to deal with another topic related to spindle: planting and care.
So, first, let's talk about reproduction. It can be of two kinds: generative or vegetative. As is known, vegetative - reproduction by parts of one plant, generative - reproduction by seeds.
In our case, the spindle can reproduce by root offspring, seedlings, bush division, cuttings or seeds. Let's consider all cases.
Reproduction by root offspring. The plant itself forms certain parts, which later can reproduce. This is the root offspring. They are parts that depart from the root of the plant. To propagate plants in this way, it is necessary to cut off the offspring from the main plant. This can be done with any cutting tools. The most suitable time is spring, when the soil is about to thaw. It is advisable to leave some land on the offspring. Its length should be about twenty-five centimeters. Finished offspring can immediately be planted in a permanent place, and you can first leave them to develop in the intermediate soil, and then transplant to the desired site.
You can also propagate the spindle with saplings. However, this is a fairly simple method, since the algorithm for the propagation of seedlings of this plant does not differ much from the algorithms for other plants. It's simple: you need to prepare a seedling, plant it in the soil, fill it with earth and take care of it. It is best to plant them in acid soils, pre-laying a drainage layer there. If the soil is heavy, it can be diluted with sand or other similar mixture. After planting, you need to fill the hole a little with soil and wait for the appearance of a new shrub, periodically watering or fertilizing it.
Reproduction by bush dividing. This method is suitable for small room spindles, because their roots do not grow vertically, but horizontally. To multiply the plant in this way, you need to separate from the existing plant part of the rhizome and nearby shoots. Apparent parts need to be cut slightly and planted on the finished place. The spindle barely painlessly tolerates such operations, so that the original bush will not cease its vital functions.
A variant of propagation by propagation is also possible. This method is one of the simplest methods. There is only one "but": the original plant should be more than five years old. The optimal time for such actions is mid-summer. To propagate the spindle sprout this way, it is necessary to cut a few cuttings so that each of them contains exactly one interstice. After that, you can put the cuttings in the soil, where they will be one to two months, and pour three to four centimeters of the earth from above. After the allotted time, you can transplant the spindle to a permanent place.
Propagation by seeds. This is one of the most uncomfortable ways to reproduce the spindle, but still sometimes it can be the most appropriate. Further on the process itself: when the capsule ripens and begins to gradually crack, you need to collect the seeds. They should be planted almost immediately, after separating the seedling and holding the seeds for a while in the potassium permanganate. Put them in the ground they need to be shallow, about two to three centimeters, then sprinkling soil. However, if the operation takes place in the spring, the seeds must be soaked and stratified (approximately five months). By the way, multiplication by seeds can also take place naturally with the help of birds. They are very fond of pecking these seeds, not completely reprocessing them in the stomach.
There are also common features of planting thisplants. First, they concern soils. The spindles do not like a lot of moisture, they prefer fertile soils. Poorly grow in acid. Therefore, it is important to determine the qualities of your soil and make it suitable for spindles.
Secondly, it is important to provide a number of spindles. He, more often than not, grows widely, occupying all the space provided. Some weaving species completely cover the ground.
Thirdly, when landing spindle, as if this did not happen, you need to sprinkle the soil with the future plant with peat. And beforehand it is better to water the hole with water and fertilize it with humus.
These are all ways of reproduction and features of planting of spindles. Now you know how to plant them. But there was another question: how to take care of them. Here there is nothing difficult.
Care for birch sprout
Choosing a spindle, planting and care - these are fairly simple processes that guarantee the gardener the perfect design of his dacha. So, after all complicated procedures, the last one remains - long-term care.
Pruning. Cutting branches of spindle must be done regularly not only to give it an attractive appearance, but in order that the plant does not suffer from dry branches. They should be pruned with a pruner. Although, by the way, very often large types of spindles are used in landscape design, carving out amusing figures from these shrubs.
Watering. Despite the fact that the plant is unpretentious, it still needs to be watered regularly. As a rule, most often he needs abundant watering in the summer. It is necessary to do this, as they say, rarely, but aptly. That is, irrigation should be carried out infrequently, but water should be poured a lot. At other times of the year, it should not be filled with water, only in the most arid times.
In winter, you need to mulch the soil with sawdust or peat. You can also use dry leaves as humus. In a particularly cold time it is better to cover your plants with something so that they are less frozen
These are all the basic tips for caring for euonymus. However, there is one extraordinary incident - pests. It can be caterpillars, mites, aphids and even mold. By the way, it is very convenient to plant a spindle tree next to the important gardener with trees actively eaten by caterpillars. Pests will immediately go to spindle grass. But it is better not to allow and actively combat them with the first manifestations of chemical or folk remedies. Therefore it is important to monitor the condition of plants and at the first hints to poison pests.
That's all the basic information about spindle grass, which you need to know all self-respecting gardeners. Good luck!