Few people know that the words gladiolus and gladiatorhave not only similar roots, but also related meanings. They come from the Latin word gladius, meaning sword. Gladiators - fighting in the arena for the amusement of the public fighters in ancient Rome, so named because their main weapon was a short sword. And the word "gladiolus" in the literal translation anddenotes this short sword. Only he amazes not with his bloodthirstiness, but with the riot of colors, the incredible beauty, the variety of colors. The second name of the flower, the sword, also denotes the sword, but translated from Greek.
Gladiolus came to Europe from Africa and tropicalMediterranean areas about three hundred years ago. This flower became very popular in the early twentieth century, when varieties with wavy petals were bred. Today, about 250 species of it are known, and breeders are not going to stop there. After all, planting and caring for gladiolus (photo) is not a big deal, and the beautiful arrows of its colors adorn a large number of flowerbeds and garden plots.
Conditions for growing gladioli
Many gardeners believe that it is very difficult to grow gladioli. Planting and caring for them will be quite a pleasant and easy pastime, if you know some basic rules.
From correctly selected soil mixture significantlydepends on the beauty and health of the plant. It is especially important to choose the right composition for the flowering representatives of the flora. For gladiolus light sandy soils are best suited. If clay prevails, then during preparation of the site for planting, it is necessary to add sand to it besides humus. Some gardeners who grow spike grass for years recommend pouring sand into each well, creating a sand capsule for the bulb. It is not worth changing the composition of the clay soil completely - the gladioli grown in it have a brighter and more saturated color.
Prepare the soil for planting should be in the autumnperiod. On the plot planned for planting, you need to make humus and dig up the depth of the shovel. Do not fertilize the land with fresh manure. It provokes the development of diseases, contributes to the growth of green mass to the detriment of flowering. In spring, the earth again needs to be dug, loosened and applied ammonia fertilizers. Plants will favor the addition of wood ash to the soil.
Planting gladiolus bulbs
Gladioli are not afraid of frost, but for quickgrowth they need a stable warm temperature of air and soil. If the temperature of the ground is not less than +9 degrees, then you can start planting bulbs. At the end of the article, you can watch a video on how to plant and care for gladioli at the dacha.
3-4 weeks before planting the bulbs is necessaryconduct their audit and training. Planting material comes from winter conservation, cleared of flakes. Peeled onions must be reviewed, removed affected by fungus or pest. The rest is spread out in a warm shaded place, avoiding the ingress of sunlight on them.
The most suitable precursors for gladioli are garlic, onions, cucumbers, and garden strawberries. Every year it is desirable to change the place of their planting, otherwise the plants will be painful and frail.
Adult bulbs are usually planted in the wells, andthe grooves are placed children gladioli. Planting and care (photo) for them are slightly different. Planting depth should be three times the diameter of the bulb. This is approximately 10-15cm, depending on the soil and variety. It is enough to deepen the children by 3 cm. On heavy clay soils the root should not be deepened by more than 8 cm. The distance between plants is about 15 cm, between children - 2 cm, between rows 30 cm. With the help of the planting depth, you can adjust the expected result - from enough a deep hole will grow a more healthy and powerful plant, placing it closer to the soil surface, you can get a large number of children. But in the second case, flower stalks should be tied up so that they do not break from the wind.
Pour water into each prepared well andwait until it is absorbed. After pouring a little sand, gently lower the bulb on it with a drop down. On top, add a little more sand, then the ground. The soil with the planted children must be covered with a covering material or polyethylene. This will prevent the drying of its upper layers, which can slow down or completely stop the growth of babies. An adult bulb does not require such shelter. Before the emergence of shoots takes about two weeks. During this time the plants should not be disturbed.
Watering and feeding
After planting, gladiolus care is toregular watering and feeding. The first watering can be done when the arrows appear that grow by 4-5 cm. It is important to choose the right amount of water so that it reaches the bulbs. To do this, near each landing site make a small groove, where to pour water. Watering is considered complete if the water in it is no longer quickly absorbed. In summer, it is enough to water twice a week, and on particularly hot days it is advisable to drink gladiolus daily in the evening hours. The most careful should be watering in the phase of 4 leaves when the spike begins to form. The lack of moisture can lead to its curvature.
Planting and caring for gladioli will not providegreat difficulties, if the time to bring nutrients to the soil. The greatest care requires kids plants. If they are taken care of in good faith, then adult flowers will not need additional feeding throughout their life. In the first phase of development, in the period of 2-3 leaves, the plant needs nitrogen fertilizers at the rate of one tablespoon of ammonium nitrate, urea or ammonium sulfate per square meter. The second feeding, consisting of nitrogen, potash and phosphate fertilizers, is made after the appearance of six leaves. During the formation of peduncles potash-phosphorus fertilizer is produced.
Foliar feedings accelerate and improveflowering, make buds more vivid and healthy, increase the size of the bulbs. They must be carried out 2-3 times during the summer period with fertilizer solutions with the addition of potassium permanganate.
Shpazhniki reproduce children or divisionbulbs with several germinated buds. Children gather when digging plants for winter storage. This method is very effective for saving the variety you like. After all, the bulbs do not live very long, and there will always be a particularly liked variety that will be a pity to lose. In addition, the baby is more adapted to the specific land on which it grew. This planting material will be more resistant to soil deficiencies, climate, and diseases.
Bulb division usually multiply fairlythe old ones, on which two buds formed in the spring. Using a clean, disinfected knife, carefully cut the onion between the kidneys and immediately treat the cut sites with charcoal.
In his absence, suitable activated carbon. Do not be afraid to cut the gladiolus, planting and caring for the halves of the bulbs are no different from taking care of its entire counterparts. They need to be planted in the ground no later than a day after cutting, pre-watered with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Digging and storage of bulbs
To enable the bulb to gain strength,it is desirable to cut the peduncle after 3-4 buds appear on it. Leaves should not be removed, they are directly involved in the growth of the bulb. It should be dug no earlier than one month after removal of the peduncle. Dug out planting material should be immediately washed, inspected and sorted.
Damaged pests or diseases of the bulbsit is better to remove, with mechanical damage, you can leave until spring, clearing the wounds and treating them with brilliant green. If in the summer plant damage was noticed by thrips, then the bulbs should be cleaned from the husk, which contributes to the reproduction of these insects in winter.
Only well-dried can survive the wintergladioli. Planting and caring for them (photos) will become more pleasant and trouble-free if, after digging and sorting, they are dried for at least a month in a very warm room, but not on the battery. For their proper storage, an exact temperature regime is necessary, which is not always possible in apartment conditions.
When stored above 10 degrees they canthrips develop, the most common pest of these flowers. In summer, they infect flowers and leaves, and for the winter they descend to the root part. During the winter they manage to destroy all the bulbs, leaving only unviable remains of them. Each gardener has his own proven method of protecting planting material against thrips. This soaking before drying for some time in a dark solution of potassium permanganate, treatment with powder from cockroaches, karbofos or Aktellik.
If there is little planting material, then for hisstorage fit the bottom drawer in the fridge. Under favorable storage conditions, in the second half of winter, the buds wake up the buds, shoots begin to sprout. Noticing this, it is necessary to provide other conditions to the planting material, placing it in a bright place. Before planting in the ground shoots can grow by 15 cm, which is evidence of a strong, healthy plants.
What you need to know when buying gladiolus bulbs
Successful landing and care for gladioli in many waysdepends on the quality of planting material. Most gardeners prefer the size of the bulbs and the number of shoots on them. Of course, it is advantageous to buy one onion with two woken up kidneys, in order to divide it into two separate segments, from which full bulbs will turn out in the fall. But it should be remembered that the more it is, the older, and therefore, its immunity is weaker than that of the young. Yes, and she lives no more than four years, after which falls ill, dies. Therefore, the strongest stems, large bright flowers will grow not from the largest, but from a young bulb. It is usually not very big, more round and has only one sprout in the middle. You can buy children gladioluses, planting and caring for which are not difficult. And when choosing early varieties, they can bloom in the year of planting.
Gladiolus: landing and care. Video.
At the beginning of our era gladioli, planting and carewhich were discussed above, was an important food product, flour from their onions was used in baking bread. Today it is only an ornamental plant. But man does not live by bread alone. And beauty and originality with gladiolus dare to fight not every flower.