The modern classification refers the hyacinth flowers to the family of asparagus. Although in earlier sources, they were included in the family of lily.
The appearance of the hyacinth is associated with a beautiful and sad ancient Greek myth. The sun god Apollo called the flower that grew on the site of the death of his pet and friend, who was called Hyacinth. Enthusiastic disk throwing, Apollo and Hyacinth, notnoticed Zephyre, who, in a fit of jealousy, changed the direction of the wind so that the flying disk hit Hyacinth in the head. The blood from the broken head of the young man was spilled on the ground, and a red-purple flower with a wonderful aroma grew up in this place. In Greece, the plant began to be considered a symbol of sadness, but thanks to its marvelous beauty during weddings, young Greek women often wove inflorescences into their curls. In modern times hyacinth symbolizes a dying and newly reviving nature, and is often used to protect a home like an amulet. In Europe, hyacinth came only in the middle of the XV century. Due to its beauty and wonderful aroma, he immediately fell in love with the florists, whose efforts resulted in a large number of species and varieties.
The natural habitat of the hyacinthMediterranean and southern regions of Asia, therefore, for intensive growth and beautiful flowering at home, it is necessary to create an environment close to the natural one. During the flowering period, hyacinth care is simple: rest, moderate watering and warmth. In winter, it is necessary to observe a fairly cool temperature regime.
Description of Species
There is a wide variety of hyacinth varieties
When counting a large number of varieties, all hyacinths have a fairly similar appearance. Hyacinths of various species differ in the form of flowers and a palette of coloring. Belt-like, shiny leaves surround the inflorescence,which at first has a green color. Over time, the leaves unfold and the flower stem, stretching, acquires coloration at the expense of blossoming flowers. The length of the peduncle can reach 30 cm and has the shape of a straight, impersonal cob, lined with flowers. The shape of the flowers can be bell-shaped, tubular and funnel-shaped. The palette is white, pink, red, purple, yellow, blue and their various shades, there is an unusual black variety of hyacinths.
An unusual black variety of hyacinths was bred selectively
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Black hyacinth: a photo of flowers
Hyacinth is a perennial onion plant. With a bulb you need to handle very carefully, then it can fully bloom for ten years or more. At the end of each flowering in the onion, a bud of renewal is formed, which contains the germs of future leaves and flowers. Of these, vegetative organs and inflorescence develop after a certain time.
Daughter bulbs begin to form onmain only in 5 years. If the daughter bulbs are easily separated from the main one, then they can be detached and planted as a separate flower. If they hold fast to the main bulb, then it is better to wait until the next season, because the children are not yet ripe and may not develop into an independent plant.
The structure of the hyacinth
Care during the rest period
Care for hyacinth, to preserve itdecorative appeal and intensive growth, is reduced to observing the temperature regime during the storage of the bulb. At this time, there is accumulation of nutrients, ripening of the bulb and the formation of a future beautiful inflorescence. After flowering, you should wait for the withering of the leaves, moderately watering, this will allow the bulb to gain strength and form daughter bulbs. After that, dig out the bulb from the ground, usually it is produced in June. At this stage, you should carefully inspect the bulb, for damage or pests, and perform treatment for the prevention of diseases. Next, the bulb is placed in a dark place for a week, at a temperature of about 30 ° C. For the next couple of weeks of storage, the temperature drops to 25 ° and all remaining ripening time care for hyacinth is the observance of the optimum temperature, which should not exceed 17 °.
Bulbs of hyacinth must be dried before planting
Note! The time for the bulb to land in the ground is selected independing on the date by which the inflorescence should appear. The period during which the bulb will ripen and bloom lasts about four months. Therefore, for those who wish to see the bloomed plant by the New Year, the bulb should be planted in the soil in early September.
Disembarkation and forcing out
For the landing is chosen easily permeable land,It consists of a sod, leaf and compost mixture, in which peat and sand are added to the top layer. Bulbs, after calibration, are planted a short distance apart and slightly pressed. They topple themselves with earth so that the tops of the bulbs remain on the surface. In this condition, the bulb will be at rest for about 2.5 months. At this stage, care for hyacinth is reduced to the mandatory performance of the maintenance regime: temperature is not higher than 7 ° C and dark place. This is the most important period for distilling the hyacinth, the fulfillment of all the conditions is necessary for breeding and beautiful flowering of the plant. During this period the bulb will take root and release shoots. When the young shoots reach 2 cm, the hyacinth is placed in a light and cool place, with a temperature of up to 15 ° C. The flower will begin to grow and a bud will appear in a month. After that, the pot with the plant is placed in a place of its constant content, with an optimum temperature of about 20 ° C. Hyacinth flowers should be protected from drafts, and get enough light. Irrigation should be regular, so that the land remains moist, but it should be done carefully, without getting on the bulb and leaves, and pouring into the edge of the pot. For uniform growth and formation of the inflorescence, the flower pot should be regularly turned. Hyacinth in the flowering period loves a lot of light and reacts well to additional, evening illumination.
When forcing bulbs hyacinths are planted so that the tip emerges from under the earth
Approximately a month later - one and a half hyacinths begin their full growth
Extraction of hyacinth can be carried out in water. For this, the bulb is immersed not in the ground, but in the water. This is done so that its lower part barely touches the surface of the water. The vessel with the bulb is placed in a dark place or wrapped in paper. Care for hyacinth is to pour water into the vessel, with the addition of fertilizers. When the sprouts appear, the plant is planted in the soil, and all the other stages coincide with the growing in the pot.
Harvesting and growing hyacinths can also be produced in water
Hyacinth flowers are undemanding for top dressing, butwell respond to the application of fertilizers. When the first sprouts appear, fertilizing with ammonium nitrate is carried out, during the budding period, potassium chloride and superphosphate are added to it. For brightly flowering hyacinths, it is recommended to apply potassium sulfate twice. After the end of flowering, to accumulate bulb forces, use potassium chloride and superphosphate.
Mainly hyacinth reproduces by the departmentdaughter bulbs that bloom 2-3 years after they are planted. The maximum number of daughter bulbs that an adult 8 can give. Children are usually planted separately and left to grow.
Reproduction of hyacinths occurs by the separation of the daughter kidneys, which can be obtained by cutting the bulb
Note! Seed multiplication is troublesome and prolongedprocess, flowering can appear only for 5 years after planting. Seed multiplication is often used by growers for breeding new varieties of hyacinths, but it is extremely rare in domestic floriculture.
For the prevention of disease after fadinghyacinth and extracting bulbs from the ground, they are carefully examined, all damaged specimens must be destroyed. The most common disease of the flower is yellow bacterial decay, which is subject to mandatory destruction. Healthy bulbs are treated with a disinfectant phosphorus-containing solution and must be dried thoroughly.
With all the basic rules of breeding, and especially the temperature regime in the period of rest and distillation, the hyacinth flowers will please with their gentle beauty and unsurpassed aroma.
The flower fly can hit the stems and bulb of hyacinths, laying off the larvae that eat the plant
But there are insects that can spoil the appearanceyour plant. Flower flies often lay eggs in hyacinths. Small larvae eat the bottom of the bulb, which triggers the process of its rotting. To protect hyacinth from the harmful influence of these flies will help such drugs as "Mukhoed" or "Tabazol". Also, do not neglect the mulching of the soil, as it prevents damage to bulbs and plant roots by onion mites and bears.
Advice! If you see that the inflorescence of the opal before it emerged from the outlet is a clear sign of an overabundance of water in the soil or an untimely landing of the hyacinth into the open ground.
Planting and care of hyacinth in the open ground
Technology of growing each plantunique, because they are all derived in different countries and have individual characteristics. Hyacinth is considered a pretty capricious flower, so if you decide to make it an ornament of your garden, be prepared to follow the recommendations of experienced florists impeccably. We suggest you familiarize yourself with the main features of hyacinth cultivation.
The flower is suitable only for neutral soil, whichin equal parts consists of turf and leaf soil. If you own a site with acidic soil, you will have to do liming, and the clay soil owners need to add a little sand to it.
As mentioned earlier, hyacinth poorly toleratesexcess moisture, so when planting and caring for hyacinth in the open ground it is necessary to make a good drainage. It will prevent accumulation of moisture and create the best conditions for the development of the plant.
Try to provide a bright light to the flower. But in this matter it is important not to overdo it: hyacinth poorly tolerates the long-term effect of direct sunlight.
The best neighbors for the hyacinth are bushes and low trees. They will protect it from strong gusts of wind, which can easily damage brittle buds.
For fertilization,specially designed for the hyacinth. They are developed by professionals, therefore perfectly balanced and contain all the necessary trace elements. Do not experiment with fresh organic fertilizer. A gentle hyacinth can simply not withstand such a concentrated substance.
Planting hyacinths in the open ground
We hope these simple tips will help you avoid mistakes, and your garden will look great.
Hyacinth is a surprisingly beautiful flower,which can decorate not only your garden, but also the interior of a house or apartment. It is often used to decorate festive events, as well as as a gift. Naturally, he is pretty fond of care, but as soon as your first bud blooms in your garden, you will realize that your efforts have not been wasted.