Clematis, or clematis - beautiful curlylarge flowers, valued by gardeners for their appearance. Clematis - varieties for the Moscow region, a description and photo of which will be given in the article, require special care. The flower got its name because of the peculiarities of the stem: klema in Latin means "vine". Clematis stem very flexible? durable and thin - this is a distinctive feature of the plant. Due to its structure, the stem can reach a length of 8 meters. Clematis leaves are flexible (in some species hibernating, others die off for the winter), have a rich green color. The shape of the leaves of clematis pointed, with edges in the form of cloves. The leaves are attached to the stalk opposite.
The appearance of the leaf plate also depends on the type: in some varieties it is integral, and in some it is divided into three broad blades.
In nature, clematis is found only intemperate and tropical climates. For the first time, clematis was cultivated and cultivated in the UK, but flower popularity began to grow only in the 19th century, when the active breeding of new varieties began.
In Russia, this plant is also cultivated, butSome varieties are suitable only for cultivation in the southern regions and only in greenhouse conditions. These species include, in particular, Lawson's large-flowered clematis. It is a hybrid variety, obtained by crossing sprawling and woolly clematis. It has a characteristic color of colors: light blue with a lilac shade and red stripes.
As an ornamental plant mostZhakman clematis is valued, distinguished by large blue flowers with a purple or violet hue. This species was bred by crossing purple, woolly clematis and Henderson clematis.
Purple clematis with blue, pink or purple flowers is good for open ground. Revealed flowers can reach 20 cm in diameter.
As already mentioned, clematis grows best insouthern areas, as it is a thermophilic plant. Some species are resistant to frost, and their large bright flowers fill the garden with marvelous aromas of jasmine, primrose and almond.
Description of clematis varieties for the Moscow region
In Moscow, weather conditions are a little likewarm climate of the southern regions. But this can not be a serious problem for those who decided to plant these beautiful flowers on their site. In order for plants to safely survive the winter and delight with their flowering all summer, you need to read the description of clematis varieties for the Moscow region before buying and make sure that they can be grown in northern latitudes.
In total today there are more than 400 species. Among them, the following varieties of clematis for the Moscow region are considered the most suitable:
General Sikorsky - Clematis variety, differentflowers pale lilac color, while depending on the lighting, their colors change. Flowers are big enough, grow on new shoots. This variety is very resistant to temperature changes, pests and diseases (including fungal). Moderately cold withstands quite easily, but does not like drafts. Feels best in the partial shade, near the wall of the house or in the western part of the garden.
Gypsy Queen is one of the varieties of clematisJacmanne It grows up to 5 m in length. The plant is very lush, sprawling, with many purple-red flowers. The period of flowering in the Clematis of Gypsy Quinn is long - they delight in the flowering view from early spring to late autumn. This is one of the most suitable varieties of clematis for the Moscow region. The plant is unpretentious, tolerates significant temperature drops.
Niobe is distinguished by bright purple flowers thatat first they are almost black. The flowers are large, up to 15 cm in diameter, appear at the beginning of summer on last year’s branches after pruning; in autumn, the flowers bloom on new shoots. Niobe is one of the most well-known varieties, but it is quite capricious: for successful flowering it is necessary to constantly fertilize, loosen and mulch the soil.
The variety "Hope" is distinguished by exceptionalendurance and unpretentiousness. Clematis varieties Hope for the suburbs fit perfectly well. But these flowers still require careful maintenance. The best place for them is on the windless side, near the wall of the house. The height of these plants can reach 3 m, which allows them to form a beautiful gazebo.
Lehi - blooms profusely from early spring until the first cold weather. With constant care, regular fertilization and arrangement of the drainage system in the area clematis will please abundant flowering.
Breeders are not the first year engaged in breeding varieties that are not resistant to our most favorable weather conditions.
Where better to plant clematis
Clematis is best suited for planting,blooming in the first wave (in May-June). Flowers in such plants appear on the branches appeared after wintering. For the Moscow region varieties of clematis, you can choose any suitable for the characteristics, but they usually do not include plants with terry flowers. Such clematis have the unpleasant property of being reborn: they either fade only once, in the first wave of flowering, or lose the original appearance of the petals.
Despite the fact that the plants are well toleratedcold with proper warming, it is recommended to plant them in the spring, when the cold has already receded, or at the end of summer, when it is still far from the first frost. You can replant in summer, when the stems are already woody.
A characteristic feature of these plants is theydemanding to the place of landing (even varieties of clematis, specially bred for the Moscow region). The place must be chosen in such a way that it is protected from strong winds and drafts. Clematis is also very demanding for light - they prefer shaded areas. Therefore, the place for them needs to be chosen so that direct sunlight does not fall (because of them the colors of the flowers may fade), but it was warm. Strongly cool dark and damp areas.
Clematis can grow in one place not onedecade, transplanting they suffer with difficulty. Therefore, immediately need to pay attention to the quality of the soil. From it depends on the appearance of the plant.
Best for breeding clematis suitableloose and fertile enough soils with weak acidity, or slightly alkaline. If the soil is clay, you need to take care of abstraction of excess moisture. Otherwise, the water will start to stagnate and cause the roots to rot; it is clear that this will reduce the flowering of clematis. To avoid this, you will need drainage - a layer of rubble.
Light or medium loamy or clayey soil is best for planting. Before planting, it does not hurt to add lime and nutrients to the soil.
Fertile soils are considered suitable forplanting clematis. But on poor soil, clematis can feel quite comfortable - provided that it is taken care of very thoroughly. Before planting, the soil must be prepared in advance: add peat or clay mixed with humus. Humus cannot be used, as it is detrimental to clematis roots, especially in the first year.
How to plant a plant correctly
You can plant clematis at any time during the growing season, although flowers grown in a greenhouse should not be planted later on August 25 - they simply will not have time to settle down and acclimatize in a new environment.
When planting clematis worth withstandingdistance 1.2-1.5 m between plants. In clay soil, which prevails in the suburbs, you need to dig a hole of 0.7x0.7x0.7 m. If the soil is wet, drainage should be laid on the bottom of the recesses. The pits are filled with earth mixed with peat and sand. It is also recommended to add 2 cups of ash and 150 g of mineral fertilizer.
Clematis support should be installed immediately.after planting, until the roots have grown, otherwise they can be damaged. The height of the support is selected taking into account the possible height of the plant, the optimum is usually 2.4 m.
You can be sure by looking at the photo that varietiesClematis for the Moscow region quite successfully endure all the not very warm climate, and gladden with abundant flowering. The main condition for this result is proper care.
Under natural conditions, clematis grows in the undergrowth, which explains its very unusual "requirements": the roots of the plant need moist and cool earth, and the flowers and leaves need light and heat.
The plant needs abundant and frequent watering, butexcessive moisture will be disastrous for him. Clematisy on overwetted soil suffers greatly: for example, if groundwater comes close to the surface or the site is located near the reservoir. The only way to help the plants is to make a water drainage system. Most often, for this purpose, ditches are dug at the site and drainage is arranged. To protect clematis from soaking, you can put them on a high ridge. But in any case, it is better to arrange a “pillow” made of crushed stone or broken brick with a thickness of at least 25 cm in the landing pit.
The roots of other clematis plants are not at all terrible. Therefore, you can plant it together with tulips, crocuses, hyacinths or peonies.
First of all, in preparation for winterto protect clematis - it depends on how quickly new shoots will grow, and therefore flowering will begin. Before covering, it is recommended to strongly shorten the stems of the plant - up to 1 m, remove broken and dried ones. The base of the flower can be closed with peat or a layer of dry soil. Then remove the stems from the support and lay around the base of the bush.
The easiest way is to close the bush with a wooden box.on top put a layer of roofing material or plastic wrap. Additionally, under the box you can put pine needles and dry leaves. If there is not much snow in winter, you can rake it to the bottom of the box.
Remove the insulation also need to correct and on time. First, remove the roofing material (film), then the box, remove the dry foliage and pine needles. The last layer - mulch - keeps clematis buds from temperature changes and bright sunlight, so you do not need to remove it immediately. Otherwise, the kidneys will start growing too early when the soil is not warmed up. A layer of mulch will also protect against cold spells: when a crust of ice forms on the surface, it can simply break the roots. As a result, if clematis grows, it is a half a month late.
How clematis breeds
Clematis is mainly propagated by seeds. To get them, flowers must be artificially pollinated. Seeds do not germinate quickly - about 10-12 months, some may lie in the ground for 2-3 years, and in some cases even longer. So you have to be patient. Places where clematis seeds are planted should be watered with potassium permanganate or boric acid. Or choose another method, for example, reproduction by layering.
Hybrid varieties more convenient to grow differently. For propagation, cuttings or cuttings are separated from the adult plant. As the cuttings used matured shoots with 5 pairs of sheets. You can select them for grafting in the middle or at the end of the summer. The stalk should be divided into parts, in each of which leave 1 interstitial. The roots of the cuttings appear in a month, sometimes up to 40 days. To speed up the formation of the root system, you can dip the stem into the heteroauxin solution.
Plant the cuttings in the ground (can be left in the greenhouse until next year), leaving a slight slope, and water well.
Rooting goes faster in warm weather - at least 25 degrees. Therefore, to provide the cuttings with the right conditions, the box can be closed with a film.
But for this method of reproduction, varieties with a tap-root system are not suitable, moreover, they are very poorly tolerated in replanting.
Another method of clematis breeding is grafting. This method is more often chosen for varietal plants.