Types and arrangement of automatic irrigation systems in the greenhouse

Impeccably shaped tomatoes and cucumbers, lushplants are a gardener's dream. And how to embody it in a greenhouse? One of the secrets is proper watering. Manually producing it is very tiring. The intensity and frequency of “water procedures” is dictated by many factors: the type of plants, soil, temperature and humidity. Tiring to think only about how not to fillone copy, and the other does not deprive with moisture. In addition, it is difficult to personally carry buckets, watering cans, pull hoses and try to calculate the necessary liters. Therefore, more and more owners of country houses are installing automatic irrigation systems in the greenhouse.

Use schemes in which human participationminimized in completely different gardens. They are applicable both in large areas and in small ones, for example, in a greenhouse. The composition of such systems includes various auxiliary units and communications, ensuring the uninterrupted operation of all equipment: storage tanks, pump units, one or more control panels, control devices, various connecting nodes and the irrigation device itself. All of them are located directly on the site, in the utility room or house.

Automatic irrigation system braingreenhouse - a controller, or, as it is also called, a programmer. This is a minicomputer capable of controlling the execution of "wet" tasks. He coordinates the work of pumps, solenoid valves that supply water to irrigators, the duration of irrigation, and responds to weather conditions. Irrigation can be programmed for either a week or a month in advance, depending on the model of the complex. Do not worry that the plants will be flooded, because modern devices are equipped with sensors that connect to the control panel. The controller takes into account their readings and, depending on the conditions, changes the irrigation intensity. If the soil is already saturated with moisture, a command will be given to automatically shut off. The principle of the construction is quite simple. From the control unit, the signals arrive at the solenoid valves, the latter are placed in special protective boxes. Each of them is located in its own working area and, depending on the installed program, opens up access to water for sprayers. Pipes that lead to the valves are made of polyethylene or propylene. Flexible, but very durable, they prevent pressure loss at the joints and nodes. And the last, but no less important link in this system is sprinklers, thanks to which water is poured onto garden soil. They manage modern irrigation systems using stationary and remote controllers, but new models can also be coordinated in the absence of owners on the site - via SMS from a mobile phone and even ... via the Internet.

Small employees of a large system

The automatic watering system includes andother additional equipment. For example, in addition to the rain sensors mentioned above, there are frost sensors that quickly respond to lower air and soil temperatures and prevent freezing of water lines. On the site, in addition to sprinklers-sprinklers, special garden hydrants or entrance columns are also installed, masked in the ground and equipped with a removable lid facing the surface. They are connected to the system using quick connectors like akvastop.

The irrigation system usually includes related accessories: handguns for flexible hoses, nozzles of various types, sprinklers, oscillators and devices for washing cars.

Very important optional equipment -drainage valves, eliminating the need to purge the ASP line with air on frosty days, as well as ensuring the flow of water from the system after it has been disconnected from the water supply source. Their only drawback is a decrease in the durability of the nozzles of the sprinklers of irrigation devices due to a strong hydraulic shock when turned on.

Brotherhood of rain

Existing systems today are divided by typeirrigation: drip irrigation for the greenhouse (basal irrigation) or sprinkler irrigation (top irrigation), by type of irrigation: fan, rotor, umbrella or pulse, as well as management: fully or partially automated. With drip irrigation, water is supplied directly to the root zone. And droppers are built either directly into the main pipe, or lead from it to each culture. The main branch is pulled underground at a depth of 25–40 cm, due to which the appearance of the site does not deteriorate and interference does not occur during various operations: weeding, aeration and planting. This method of irrigation is optimal for fruit crops and individual flower beds. The advantage of radical irrigation, by the way, which appeared much later than the top irrigation, according to experts, is the ability to maintain optimal soil moisture, necessary for healthy growth and full development of garden specimens.

Sprinkling method of ground sprayingsuitable for herbaceous greenhouse plants: dill, onion, garlic. Its main advantages are the possibility of excellent hydration in the selected area and regulation of the sector. Drops of water, simulating natural rainfall, fall on the green inhabitants, without injuring them. Therefore, irrigation nozzles are called sprinklers. They allow you to control the radius and nature of the spray of water.

Presented on the Russian market todaya fairly large assortment of models with different design features and production capacity. They are static - umbrella type with an irrigation radius of up to five meters with a fixed angle of irrigation (90, 180, 360 °) and variable (360 °), which is very convenient for complex plot geometry and for watering flower beds, as well as small in area lawns. The nozzles of the more complex rotary sprinklers in the device are rotated by 40–360 ° under water pressure and can supply a water stream over long distances.

Drip irrigation

System drip irrigation beetle kit greenhouseused primarily for water-loving plants, but so that neighboring, less demanding, do not suffer from an excess of moisture. The liquid is supplied to the roots by means of thin pipes, drop by drop or very weak streams, for which purpose special droppers, fittings and hoses are provided in the design. Its scope is watering climbing plants or small beds in which vegetables are grown. At the same time, everything is arranged in such a way that almost no drinking is given to random weeds, but decorative pets are provided with the most optimal regime of water supply, nutrition and air exchange.

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Greenhouse drip irrigation system is good yetand the fact that it can be successfully used for seedlings planted in containers, crates and pots. It should be remembered that a timer must be present in such a scheme, otherwise the water flow will be too large. In addition, drip systems must be regularly cleaned of algae and contaminants.

An interesting option micro-drop irrigation of greenhouses: each plant is supplied with water in individual, only necessary quantities, and the owner does not waste time on tedious and not always correct watering. A micro-drip irrigation system for greenhouses is connected to the water supply, and small nozzles, elegant mini-rotors, micro-sprinklers and thin, discreet hoses easily mask with greenery.

For the maintenance of greenhouses, decorativehedges, shrubs and flower beds, including those with a difficult layout, apply entire highways, which are a set of droppers located on a common hose at a certain distance from each other. The automatic micro-drip irrigation system for greenhouses is good in that the water with it can be brought to each plant individually. They are installed directly at the roots and fixed in the ground with special plastic pegs.

Dancing trickles

When arranging such systems, there arerules and recommendations from landscape designers. It is advisable that ground equipment is not striking. After all, the main thing in the garden is plants and a beautiful landscape, and not technical designs, even the most modern ones. In order to properly hide the details, it is necessary to consult with technical specialists at the initial stage, so that in the future this does not interfere with the functioning of the system. And for the beauty of the irrigation process itself, it is important to place the irrigation heads according to the laws of symmetry, so that when they alternately or simultaneously work, the "geometry" would give a beautiful visual effect, similar to a dance. At dusk, the greenhouse looks especially beautiful, illuminated by a small garden flashlight located in the installation area.

To select a suitable irrigation model fora specific greenhouse, it is necessary to take into account not only which plants grow or will only be planted, but also what elements exist or are planned.

A scattering of pearl spray. Sprinklers

Flower beds, fruit and ornamental shrubs -Here is the scope of irrigators. Their operation is controlled by a special solenoid valve, which is reliably protected from dampness and harmful atmospheric influences, by a shock-resistant plastic case, blocking the access of water to the highway if necessary. The principle of operation of the device is such that at the end of work, it automatically retracts into the ground, hiding out of sight. Interchangeable nozzles provide a variety of irrigation options and numerous forms of water flow - from a directional stream to a wide cascade covering a large area. Their design is now perfected, so the devices of various manufacturers are outwardly very similar.

Impulse models with a huge processing sectorsoil with water (adjustable within 30–36 ° О) is used for large greenhouses with flower beds and shrubs. When spraying water, their nozzles rotate around its axis. The sphere of influence of such equipment is from 12 to 20 m.

Fan varieties are variable or harda fixed radius of irrigation, so the space they process has a rectangular shape. They are used to supply water to alpine slides, flower beds and small lawns. Watering is carried out using a special swinging tube with numerous holes.

Simple static type sprinklers are designedfor small areas - from 2 to 7 m. They spray water, forcing it through narrow slots or holes that are located in a circle around the nozzle. The irrigation sector is not regulated uniformly, but stepwise - from 45 to 36 ° O - by changing the spray nozzles of different types.

For access to the root zone of large shrubsumbrella options are best suited. Their range is also small - from 1 to 5 m, water flow - from 70 to 400 liters per hour. Their designs are very diverse: these systems are installed in greenhouses both vertically and horizontally. Most interesting, here you can vary the shape of the water flow, for example, giving the jet the appearance of an oscillating figure eight. Just change one of the included plastic nozzles to another.

Rotary irrigation devices are used forwatering shrubs of any length. They are small, medium and long-range. Their main advantage over static and umbrella ones is a uniform distribution of moisture (in a circle) and a large treatment area - from 6 to 15 m. The irrigation sector of the sprinkler head is adjustable in the range of 40–36 °.

Among the most unsophisticated and affordabledevices of this type is also the so-called sprinkler "Magic Flower", which has recently gained great popularity among owners of small garden plots. Typically, technical devices of this purpose are trying to hide, camouflage plants and elements of the artificial landscape, but here the developers went the other way. This is a rather tall atomizer of the original design, really having the shape of a large flower.

Where will it rain?

Polycarbonate Greenhouse Irrigation Systems -quite complex engineering structures. For their proper installation, you need to contact specialists who have long been working in the market and offer devices of well-known and trusted manufacturers. However, the pleasure is not cheap - the minimum amount of work on the design and installation without the cost of equipment is 10 000. rubles. for one greenhouse.

Companies specializing in irrigation systems,As a rule, they provide their specialists, who, before installation, help to make the project and give useful recommendations. If you wish, automatic watering in the greenhouse can be done with your own hands, but first you must decide whether they will irrigate the entire territory or selectively - only a certain garden or flower bed. Even before the start of design work, they decide on the control method: manual or automatic. In the first embodiment, a sleeve with a nozzle is connected to the intake column, and the water supply is regulated by a ball valve. In small areas, semi-automatic systems are used in which water will only enter the sprinklers after someone unscrews the valve. Immediately before the start of designing, they are considering what source of life-giving moisture will come from, where it will be located, and what volume it can provide. In the suburban area often use a water pipe or well. Very rarely, a natural pond is used for household needs.

Any irrigation system for the greenhouse is connected togeneral water supply, which has certain difficulties: irrigation works create pressure differences, which causes dissatisfaction of neighbors. A well is the best option, but it can be harmful to plants, since the temperature of the "underground" is unlikely to be above ten degrees. To ensure pressure, quantity of water and its temperature, the designers propose to install separate storage systems, consisting of one or several tanks of various volumes - from one cubic meter and above, filters and pumping equipment. Fluid is accumulated in these tanks at any time - even at night, when total consumption decreases and there is good pressure in the main.