Russia has long been famous for its woodenarchitecture. Over the centuries, our ancestors erected monumental structures using exclusively wood as the building material. And today, houses made of natural wood are no less popular. In the modern world, the most common material for the construction of durable wooden structures is a bar.
This predictable pattern is due tothe fact that the construction of houses and baths from timber requires much less effort than when using a solid log, but at the same time, walls from timber can be just as successfully put into “interception”. Houses made of timber absolutely do not need obligatory external decoration and sit much better. It is much easier to connect the corners of a house from a bar than in a log house - this is due to the specifics of the material. Many aspects of construction depend entirely on how the sides of the timber are cut. Much more subtleties depend on the type of saw cut than it might seem at first glance.
The northern regions of Russia are the most environmentally friendlyare clean and least affected by human activities - for this reason it is recommended to use in construction timber made from raw materials grown in these places. Arkhangelsk and Vologda regions, Karelia - the north the tree grew, the more resins absorbed its wood, which means that it has a higher density.
Log and beam. Similarities and differences
What is a gun carriage? This is a log with a diameter of 30 to 50 centimeters, processed on a sawmill from two opposite sides (formations). The carriage is considered a kind of hewn log, but this is not true. This material is inherently specific, and it is often called a half-bar. The walls of the carriage house have a smooth coating, devoid of various bulges.
The use of a carriage in construction allowssignificantly win in the internal volume of the future home, and its heat-insulating qualities are about one and a half times higher than that of a solid log. The carriage eliminates the need to produce additional exterior decoration of the structure, although it is still necessary to pierce the walls. In ancient times, for these purposes, it was customary to use ordinary moss, which has good antiseptic properties.
Carriage houses traditionally possesscorners felled with a decent margin. Their joints tend to wedge each other, as happens in a log house. This property provides high rigidity of the entire structure and avoids deformation and fracture under the influence of external factors. The way that the carriages are fastened in the corners is called the “Norwegian castle”. It helps to avoid blowing walls and moving the carriage itself.
With all its advantages, the carriage hascertain disadvantages. It is traditionally customary to make it from a rather expensive material - selected selective coniferous wood. The raw material from which the carriage is made is not dried by the production technology, so the material dries directly in the log house itself. Wood fibers lose their natural integrity in the process of squeezing bumps, so the material is deformed to some extent. This can be avoided by entrusting work to experienced professionals. It is very common practice in which the house is assembled directly at the factory, the bars are numbered, after which the house is disassembled and transported to the site for construction, so that then it can be reassembled. That’s exactly how houses are built from “turnkey” timber.
Automated Log Cutting Processallows to minimize human participation in the production process and at the same time improve the quality of the carriage processing. That is how various types of timber are produced: first, a carriage is created from a whole log, then other types of lumber are produced from a carriage. And after that, the finished beam is given the necessary shape, shaped and planed.
Timber houses can be used both forpermanent, as well as for seasonal residence, therefore, the beam of the desired section must be selected based on the purpose of the future home. It is highly advisable to build a house for year-round living from a bar with the largest cross section.
Before you become a full-fledged timber, woodIt is necessary to go through several stages. At the first stage, the logs are sawn into several bars of a quadrangular cross section with predetermined dimensions. At the second stage, the beam is profiled, giving it a shape that will provide the most tight fit of the bars to each other. Such a beam will well protect the structure from heat loss.
On one of the faces of the profiled beam there isspike, while on the opposite - a groove designed for the same spike. Assembling a house from such material is carried out in a short time, since modern technologies allow us to produce timber with minimal dimensional errors and thereby avoid a variety of distortions and deformations. The construction of a timber house is fully consistent with the current trend towards construction using the constructor method. For this reason, this process does not require professional carpentry skills, as well as building abilities in general.
Keep warm and pristine look at home fromprofiled timber helps the specifics of its corner mounts. In order to ensure the same level of thermal insulation of houses made of round logs and profiled timber, the first material must be spent on construction by 40 percent more than the second. The relatively small shrinkage of the timber house allows you to avoid rotting and leakage - it is about 3-3.5 times less than the shrinkage of wet wood. It is traditionally customary to imagine a wooden structure with cracks in the walls and with cobwebs at the ceiling, but this is nothing more than the legends of antiquity. Modern houses from profiled timber practically do not crack - this is the main advantage of this material over other types of timber. So despite the relatively high cost, it remains the most preferred.
Planed timber is in many ways similar to profiled,but has a lower cost due to the complete absence of a groove. This material is more suitable for houses with decoration - it is recommended to finish the walls of such timber both inside and outside. A planed beam does not exclude the possibility of cracks - this problem is also solved by decoration. When using this material for building a house, certain problems may arise with the elimination of deformations and irregularities, but they are more often characteristic of lower-quality varieties of timber.
This material allows you to build a house of timberrelatively inexpensive. The production of sawn timber does not require technology in 2016, therefore, in terms of quality of processing, it is inferior to more expensive counterparts. A common occurrence for sawn timber is a high shrinkage rate and numerous cracks - this is due to the fact that this material does not undergo an auxiliary drying procedure, since it was originally made from dried wood.
The production of other types of timber requireshard enough selection of wood for quality, for sawn timber, this is not necessary at all. For this reason, a significant proportion is the significant share of marriage in the party. Amid all the shortcomings of sawn timber, its low price is not such a significant advantage. Often, sawn timber has to be independently leveled and adjusted to the required dimensions. Houses made of this material critically need both external and internal additional decoration.
The issue of warming
Both planed and non-planed varietiesbeams in need of insulation supplementing the main tightness. For these purposes, you can use natural moss or ordinary tow. The same materials help to cope with the problem of cracks and crevices. But since often these tools are not suitable due to the extremely large amount of work, it is recommended to use special tools to achieve the above goals. Particular attention should be paid to corners and seams - in such places, gaps are usually the most significant. The joints of the beam with door and window frames should also not be overlooked. Coating the walls with paint will help improve the thermal insulation properties of the timber.
Houses built from profiled timber inthey do not need additional insulation, since the design of the joints and the production technology of this material already provide sufficient thermal insulation. Warm houses from timber already after shrinkage. The external insulation technology creates optimal conditions for temperature and humidity, which significantly increases the service life of the beam.
A beam up to 150 millimeters thick is suitable for building a summer house. A house for year-round use should be built of timber from a thickness of 200 millimeters.
The bulk of the timber house is being createddirectly at the manufacturing enterprise. After manufacturing, parts of the structure are numbered, the house is dismantled and moved in parts to the area where the foundation intended for it is located. This procedure suffers minor errors that can always be fixed on the spot.
Due to the fact that all the basic elements of the futurestructures are installed evenly, a timber house can be assembled in one stage. The base under the roof of such buildings are made mostly on pins. This process does not require special investments, since as a raw material, it uses scraps of boards left over from any other work. You can use both round and square dowels - the second is much stronger and easier to manufacture. Sinless drilling of holes for the pins is impossible - there are always minor inaccuracies.
If a project to build a house out of timberIf hired workers perform it, then the question of choosing nails or pins must be decided in advance. The professionalism of the team can be checked by this choice - real experts will never make a log house on nails. It will be useful to see - live or in the photo - the previous projects that the work team was engaged in, because working with wood is extremely painstaking and requires true skill.
With a high probability of deformation of the finishedBuildings cannot be avoided. But its level will be minimal, provided that the assembly of the house was carried out by professionals and with the help of pins. Window and door openings are made with a view to future shrinkage, and the load on the walls is evenly distributed using special production technologies.
In the construction of houses from timber usedmaterial that has retained its natural moisture content. The raw materials can be dried up a little maximum, but the timber itself is not laid out for drying - it takes too much time and is associated with the inevitable deformation of the material. Dry timber - the concept in most cases is purely theoretical, since the process of drying it requires considerable financial investments. To do this, it would be necessary to use microwaves or special chambers, which would make the production of timber completely unprofitable for its manufacturers.
Recently, in the lumber marketGlued beam is rapidly gaining popularity, but this completely new material with a unique set of qualities deserves a separate discussion. In addition, surpassing its analogues in cost at least twice, glued beams are in a completely different price segment.